1) Sprain or Strain: Low back pain, when only present for only few days or less than a month, is quite often the result of "day-to-day" musculoskeletal problems like muscle/soft tissues sprain or strain. When persisting longer than a month, the cause of pain can be due to:
2) Facet Joint Syndrome: Read more
3) Lumbar Disc Degeneration (DDD): Disc degeneration, as well as disc bulging, is part of the "wear and tear" of life. Sometimes the disc can bulge or herniate enough to result in inflammation and irritation of a nerve, making treatment like epidural steroid injections necessary.
4) Lumbar Disc Bulging and Disc Herniation: In this common condition, the center of the disc called nucleus pulposus can bulge or rupture through a tear, pushing on the nearby nerve and also resulting in the release of irritative chemical enzymes, which can further inflame the nerves.
5) Spinal stenosis: it is a form of "arthritis of the spine" or "bone overgrowth" which results in narrowing of the bony opening through which the nerve exits the spine, resulting in pinching of the nerve, inflammation, irritation and pain. This is also called neuroforaminal stenosis
Other causes of Low Back Pain are:
6) Sacro-Iliac Joint Inflammation
7) Piriformis Muscle Syndrome
8) Tumors of the Spine or Pelvis